Rochester Institute of Technology A plethora of internal and external variables combine to create individual personalities, behaviors, and psychopathologies supposedly unique to every human being. The argument of genetic makeup versus environmental influences, however, has researchers working to determine what really shapes us.
Infant attachment[ edit ] The attachment system serves to achieve or maintain proximity to the attachment figure. In close physical proximity this system is not activated, and the infant can direct its attention to the outside world. Within attachment theory, attachment means "a biological instinct in which proximity to an attachment figure is sought when the child senses or perceives threat or discomfort.
Attachment behaviour anticipates a response by the attachment figure which will remove threat or discomfort". John Bowlby begins by noting organisms at different levels of the phylogenetic scale regulate instinctive behavior in distinct ways, ranging from primitive reflex-like "fixed action patterns" to complex plan hierarchies with subgoals and strong learning components.
In the most complex organisms, instinctive behaviors may be "goal-corrected" with continual on-course adjustments such as a bird of prey adjusting its flight to the movements of the prey. The concept of cybernetically controlled behavioral systems organized as plan hierarchies Miller, Galanter, and Pribram, thus came to replace Freud's concept of drive and instinct.
Such systems regulate behaviors in ways that need not be rigidly innate, but—depending on the organism—can adapt in greater or lesser degrees to changes in environmental circumstances, provided these do not deviate much from the organism's environment of evolutionary adaptedness.
Such flexible organisms pay a price, however, because adaptable behavioral systems can more easily be subverted from their optimal path of development. For humans, Bowlby speculates, the environment of evolutionary adaptedness probably resembles present-day hunter-gatherer societies for the purpose of survival, and, ultimately, genetic replication.
These figures are arranged hierarchically, with the principal attachment figure at the top. Anxiety is the anticipation or fear of being cut off from the attachment figure. If the figure is unavailable or unresponsive, separation distress occurs.
By age three or four, physical separation is no longer such a threat to the child's bond with the attachment figure. Threats to security in older children and adults arise from prolonged absence, breakdowns in communication, emotional unavailability, or signs of rejection or abandonment.
A securely attached baby is free to concentrate on their environment. The attachment behavioural system serves to achieve or maintain proximity to the attachment figure. During the first phase the first eight weeksinfants smile, babble, and cry to attract the attention of potential caregivers.
Although infants of this age learn to discriminate between caregivers, these behaviours are directed at anyone in the vicinity.
During the second phase two to six monthsthe infant discriminates between familiar and unfamiliar adults, becoming more responsive toward the caregiver; following and clinging are added to the range of behaviours.
The infant's behaviour toward the caregiver becomes organized on a goal-directed basis to achieve the conditions that make it feel secure.
These manifest as protesting the caregiver's departure, greeting the caregiver's return, clinging when frightened, and following when able. If the caregiver is inaccessible or unresponsive, attachment behaviour is more strongly exhibited.
For example, whereas babies cry because of pain, two-year-olds cry to summon their caregiver, and if that does not work, cry louder, shout, or follow. Tenets[ edit ] Common attachment behaviours and emotions, displayed in most social primates including humans, are adaptive.
The long-term evolution of these species has involved selection for social behaviors that make individual or group survival more likely. The commonly observed attachment behaviour of toddlers staying near familiar people would have had safety advantages in the environment of early adaptation, and has similar advantages today.
Bowlby saw the environment of early adaptation as similar to current hunter-gatherer societies. According to Bowlby, proximity-seeking to the attachment figure in the face of threat is the "set-goal" of the attachment behavioural system.
Early experiences with caregivers gradually give rise to a system of thoughts, memories, beliefs, expectations, emotions, and behaviours about the self and others. Bowlby's original account of a sensitivity period during which attachments can form of between six months and two to three years has been modified by later researchers.Autism & Developmental Language Impairments (ADLI) is a peer-reviewed, open access journal, which focusses on helping shape research in the growing field of developmental communication disorders.
The journal is not solely focused on autism and specific language impairment and welcomes submissions across a wide range of topics within atypical language development. Ayurveda Research Papers (CCA Student papers) The selected papers published on our website have been written by students of the California College of Ayurveda as a part of their required work toward graduation.
Toward a positive psychology of indigenous thriving and reciprocal research partnership model. Ayurveda Research Papers (CCA Student papers) The selected papers published on our website have been written by students of the California College of Ayurveda as a part of their required work toward graduation.
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